The information here is consolidated from half a dozen documents from various sources that I have found over the years as I’ve learned about depression and how to battle it.
People experiencing depression or anxiety (or both) often have automatic ways of thinking which can exacerbate the emotional state. Because these thinking styles are automatic they can be difficult to change, but simply identifying when they occur is a good step on the road to changing our default thinking mode.
All or nothing thinking
Viewing things in absolute, black-or-white terms, without recognising any middle ground.
- success or failure
- perfect or worthless
- either I do it right or not at all
Focusing on who is to blame for a problem rather than what can be done to solve it.
This is a sort of tunnel vision in which you focus on only one part of a situation and ignore the rest. Usually it involves focusing on only the negatives and ignoring the positives.
Jumping to conclusions
It would be nice to think that whenever you have a hunch about something is is correct, but the reality is that often we are wrong in our hunches. If we rely on this type of thinking it can lead to problems. There are two key types of jumping to conclusions:
- Mind reading: Imagining you know what others are thinking, feeling or intending to do. This is a very common way of thinking.
- Fortune telling: Predicting the future. Making negative predictions about how something will turn out.
Assuming that because you feel a certain way then what you think must be true. Have you ever felt anxious about something and thought to yourself, “I know this isn’t going to work out well” yet everything turned out just fine? This is emotional reasoning. “I feel, therefore it is” is not valid logic.
- I feel embarrassed so I must be an idiot.
- I feel anxious, something bad is going to happen.
Assigning global, negative labels to yourself or other people. By defining yourself or other people by one specific behaviour, usually one you consider negative, you are ignoring all the other positive aspects of yourself or others.
- I’m such an idiot.
- I’m completely useless.
- They’re so inconsiderate.
Drawing sweeping conclusions based on a single incident. Seeing a pattern based upon a single event, or being overly broad in the conclusions you draw.
- Everything is always rubbish.
- Nothing good ever happens.
- Things never turn out well for me.
Blowing things out of proportion. Viewing a situation as terrible, awful, horrible. Taking what might be a slight problem and viewing the most extreme negative version of it.
- What if… !!!
- Oh no …
Minimising or dismissing your positive qualities, achievements or behaviours by telling yourself they are unimportant or do not count. This may include exaggerating the positive qualities of other people while downplaying your own attributes.
- That doesn’t count, I was just lucky.
- They didn’t really mean it, they were just being polite.
Shoulds and musts
Focusing on how things or people ‘should or ‘must’ be. Treating your own standards or preferences as rules that everyone must live by. It is not always unhelpful to think, “I should get my work done on time”, but if the ‘shoulds’ or ‘musts’ become unreasonably demanding it leads to guilt and disappointment.
Blaming yourself or taking responsibility for something that wasn’t completely your fault. Telling yourself that events relate to you when they may not.
- This is my fault.
Intolerance of uncertainty
Struggling to accept things being uncertain or unknown.
- What if something bad happens?